Speak and Write Good English

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Автор:N. P. Kovalenko, O. A. Nekhai, V. A. Sorkina
Издателство:Высшая школа
ISBN: Тегло (гр.): Формат: 125 / 195 Състояние: Мн. добро
Speak and Write Good English / N. P. Kovalenko, O. A. Nekhai, V. A. Sorkina

ББК 81.2 Англ-9 К 56
Рецензенты: кафедра английской филологии Горловского пединститута иностранных языков; Н. Ф. Санникова, канд. филол. наук, доцент
Коваленко Н. П. и др.

К 56 Пособие по развитию навыков английской устной и письменной речи: [Учеб. пособие для ин-тов и фак. иностр. яз. /Н. П. Коваленко, О. А. Нехай, В. А. Сор-кина].— Мн.: Выш. школа, 1983.— 231 с.

Содержит систему тренировочных, коммуникативных и творческих упражнений, направленных на развитие навыков английской устной и письменной речи. Даются разнообразные задания для обсуждения, темы для написания сочинений, задания по составлению аннотаций и рецензий на прочитанный материал.

Рекомендуется студентам старших курсов институтов и факультетов иностранных языков. Будет полезным всем, кто совершенствует свои знания английского языка самостоятельно.
4602010000—029 М304(05) — 83
© Издательство «Вышэйшая школа», 1983
ББК 81.2 Англ-9

The development of speech habits for students remains one of the main aims in studying a foreign language. It serves the main purpose of the language at large as a means of communication. This is necessarily coupled with another way of communication between people—in writing. Both these purposes, that is the development of speech and writing habits, are set in the text-book which is meant for advanced students. But there arise certain peculiarities typical of teaching advanced students. Beginners are usually taught by imitation and reproduction. Whereas for advanced students it is necessary to develop the habits of assimilating, summing up and developing the material under study. Junior students are usually asked to tell the contents but senior students are expected to compare facts and ideas, to arrive at conclusions, to criticise, to argue, etc. As a rule, the students generally don’t lack ideas to express. They are most often hindered by the form in which they must express their ideas in a foreign language. It comes out most when they are interested and excited by some subject and immediately switch over to the mother tongue.

In the text-book an attempt has been made to gradually teach advanced students how to express their thoughts, ideas, etc. both in spoken and written forms. Printed material is not excluded for two reasons: first, it is the best and most reliable source of information easy to get; second, grown-up people psychologically can not learn only by ear and cannot do without a text. The texts have been selected both from novels by English and American writers and from newspapers and periodicals the latter supplying us with more modern facts and data.

The material is arranged thematically hence vocabulary lists contain as a rule words, word combinations and lexical patterns and are grouped in topical order. They include the most useful lexical units and phrases to be used in speech and in writing.

The structure oí the text-book

Every theme or topic is subdivided into two big parts: Learn to Speak and Learn to Write. Learn to Speak opens with Speech Pattern Exercises containing substitution and transformation tables, dialogues, etc. around minor situations connected with the main topic. The exercises are to be done orally so as to prepare the students for the next stage — Situational Exercises also to be done orally but sometimes with reference to texts. Situational Exercises are meant to develop the abilities of reasoning, comparing and criticising in students. The suggested situations are as close as possible to natural situations the students may some day encounter. In both these subdivisions there are also exercises for School Adaptation which are indispensable for students of Teachers' Training Colleges and Faculties. Exercises in School Adaptation teach the students to simplify, adapt and transfer the material under study to the level of knowledge of the junior or senior form pupils at secondary school.

The Texts, Vocabulary Lists and Reference Literature List supply the students with facts, events and data for Discussion which concludes the Learn to Speak part of the text-book.

The purpose of the Learn to Write part of the textbook is to teach advanced students to deal with important and socially relevant problems in writing. The task is bulky for ideas committed to the paper require more previous thinking and allow minimum carelessness in form and style. Possibilities for unnecessary reiterations, corrections and cases of tautology are more scarce than in oral communication, due to which the necessity of active and tense thinking and growing responsibility double. To fulfil the task of eliminating all the possible language errors to minimum the authors set the task of instilling in advanced students writing habits taken very little heed of heretofore.

Every theme or topic of the Learn to Write part contains a gradually complicated system of specific exercises, where at the first stage attention is focussed on teaching to write Sentences, then Paragraphs and, finally, Compositions.

While working at Sentences advanced students are taught to improve their style and avoid monotony. They practice at beginning sentences not only with subjects but with different modifiers and phrases, correcting sentences with the help of different linking expressions, combining two sentences in order to deepen the ensuing conclusion either positive or negative, etc.

The unit called Paragraphs evokes logical and analytical thinking and is meant to develop these mental abilities in advanced students further on.

Concluding unit of the text-book, Compositions, is planned to be a sort of synthesis of the knowledge received on each theme or topic.

It is to be remembered that the number of exercises, texts, vocabulary units is given «ad maximum». It is for the teacher to decide how many and which ones to use taking into consideration the level of knowledge of the students and the number of hours allotted for the subject.

Practical recommendations

1. How to arrange a proper discussion

Some short speech (es) should precede the discussion proper for getting the audience to talk. It is desirable that the teacher should abstain from participation in the discussion to the very end when his interference is welcome to assess the course of the discussion on the whole and the activity of the participants.

Discussions can be 1 ) spontaneous, held on the spot, without, any special preparatory work done and 2) those planned beforehand, and staged in class in the form of discussions, conferences, press-conferences, interviews, etc.

The formal discussion in Britain is called a debate (at a public meeting, or in Parliament). The debate is a contest between two speakers, or two groups of speakers, whose aim is to show skill and ability in

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