Statistics Without Tears

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Автор:Derek Rownt
Издателство:Pelican Books
ISBN:9780140223262 Тегло (гр.): Формат: 130 / 200 Състояние: Добро
Statistics Without Tears / Derek Rownt


Introduction 9

How to use this book 10

1. Statistical inquiry 13
Making sense of experience 14 What is statistics? 17 Descriptive and inferential statistics 19
Collecting a sample 23

2. Describing our sample 28
Statistical variables 28
Error, accuracy and approximations 35

3. Summarizing our data 38
Tables and diagrams 38 Central tendency (averages) 48
Measures of dispersion 50

4. The shape of a distribution 57

Skewed distributions 58 Introducing the normal distribution 64
Proportions under the normal curve 72
Comparing values 79

5. From sample to population 82
Estimates and inferences 82 The logic of sampling 86
A distribution of sample-means 87
Estimating the population-mean 94
Estimating other parameters 99
6. Comparing samples 102

From the same or different populations? 102 Significance testing 107 The significance of significance 116 Comparing dispersions 122 Non-parametric methods 124

7. Further matters of significance 128
One- versus two-tailed tests 129 z-tests and t-tests 139
Comparing several means 141 Comparing proportions 150

8. Analysing relationships 155
Paired values 156
Three kinds of correlation 160
The strength of a correlation 161
The significance of a correlation coefficient 164
Interpreting a correlation coefficient 169
Prediction and regression 176
Postscript 185
Review 186 Caution 188
Bibliography 191
Index 197

This book is dedicated to Professor Peter Moore of the London Business School who gave me just the kind of confidence in approaching statistics that I hope my book will give to its readers.

I take this opportunity also of thanking my Open University colleagues, Professor Brian Lewis, John Bibby, Gordon Burt and Fred Lockwood - and Penguin’s advisory editor, David Nelson -for their detailed and constructive comments on earlier drafts which helped me greatly in preparing this final version of the book. Lastly, I thank my secretary, Heida Darling, for producing the immaculate typescript on which those comments were made.

This book is written in the belief that the basic concepts of statistics can be learnt without having to perform calculations. If you are about to take a course in statistics, or if you want to know what the statisticians are trying to say to you, then this is the book for you. With it you can prime yourself with the ideas of the subject before getting involved in the associated calculations.
Teaching by means of words and diagrams rather than through figures, formulae and equations, the author is providing an approach for the non-mathematical reader. To prevent this process from being too one-sided Rowntree has included questions in his argument; answer them as you go and you will be able to tell how far you have mastered the subject.
This ‘tutorial in print’ is designed for everyone who needs or wants to know how statistics work.
Cover illustration by Michael Foreman
ISBN 0-14-022326-6
A PELICAN BOOK / Mathematics
9 780140 223262

Published by the Penguin Group 27 Wrights Lane, London W8 5TZ, England

Viking Penguin Inc., 40 West 23rd Street, New York, New York 10010, USA Penguin Books Australia Ltd, Ringwood, Victoria, Australia

Penguin Books Canada Ltd, 2801 John Street, Markham, Ontario, Canada L3R 1B4 Penguin Books (NZ) Ltd, 182-190 Wairau Road, Auckland 10, New Zealand

Penguin Books Ltd, Registered Offices: Harmondsworth, Middlesex, England First published 1981

Reprinted 1981, 1983, 1984, 1985, 1987 (twice)

Copyright © Derek Rowntree, 1981 All rights reserved

Printed and bound in Great Britain by Cox & Wyman Ltd, Reading Set in Monotype Times

Except in the United States of America, this book is sold subject to the condition that it shall not, by way of trade or otherwise, be lent, re-sold, hired out, or otherwise circulated without the publisher’s prior consent in any form of binding or cover other than that in which it is published and without a similar condition including this condition being imposed on the subsequent purchaser

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