Introduction to Psychology

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Автор:Ernest R. Hilgard
Издателство:Harcourt, Brace and World. Inc
ISBN:6211180 Тегло (гр.): Формат: 180/ 250 Състояние: Отлично
Introduction to Psychology / Ernest R. Hilgard
Photographs not accompanied by a credit line are from the following sources:

1 University of Wisconsin, Primate Laboratory 

63 Photo Researchers, Inc.

123 United Press International

185 Ezra Stoller Associates

251 Cities Service Company

369 Harbrace Photo

497 Ralph Buchsbaum

551 Marc Riboud-Magnum Photographs

Charts by Harry Lazarus; physiology drawings by Lorelle Raboni.
Copyright 1953, © 1957, 1962, by Harcourt, Brace & World, Inc.
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced
in any form or by any mechanical means, including mimeograph and tape recorder, without permisson in writing from the publisher.
Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 62-11180
Printed in the United States of America

Recent advances in physical sciences and technology make urgent the need for social controls of the power that man has unleashed. A growing number of students, puzzled by man’s place in the world, and wondering about his capacity for intelligent planning, are turning to the sciences concerned with human conduct. Psychology is one of these sciences of behavior, and courses in psychology show the effects of this growing interest year after year. This serious new interest in what is known and in what is relevant places psychology courses and psychology textbooks under strain, for students are not interested in everything psychologists do just because it is being done: they want to know }vhy it is being done.

In developing the third edition of this book, I have relied heavily on the experience of many instructors who used the earlier editions and who reported their sense of the strengths and weaknesses of those editions. But the record of experience with previous editions, valuable as it is, does not suffice to solve many of the problems that arise in trying to prepare a textbook that will be representative of contemporary psychology. With the growth of the psychological profession and the increasing financial support for research, the amount of new research bulks large indeed, with over 10,000 new titles reported annually in Psychological A bstracts. The problem of selecting from this vast body of material becomes a staggering one. The rapid growth in the field and the importance of new findings are perhaps best indicated by the fact that about one-third of the references in this edition have appeared since the second edition went to press early in 1957.

Although this version is clearly the outgrowth of earlier editions, the entire book has been rewritten. Users of the previous editions will recognize certain changes in the sequence of presentation, the consolidation or even omission of certain topics, and the addition of a number of totally new topics. No introductory text could do justice to contemporary psychology if it avoided the issues raised by the newer knowledge of the brain (the reticular formation, brain biochemistry, gating mechanisms), advances in genetics (changes in chromosome numbers in man, a known basis for mongolism), mathematical models, cognitive simulation by computers, detection methods as against conventional psychophysics, and person perception as an exciting new approach to social psychology. It is hoped that the student who completes the book will have some feeling of the freshness and liveliness of these and other new issues, and of their potential significance for the understanding of man.

In order to incorporate new material without lengthening the book unduly, some curtailing has been necessary. The two chapters on motivation have been reduced to one, with a sharp revision of content reflecting the decline in the position of the need-drive-incentive theory and the rise of competing theories. Two chapters on individual differences and intelligence have also been reduced to one. A single chapter on personality has become two, one dealing with appraisal, the other with theories of personality; personality is today too central a topic to permit adequate treatment in a short chapter. Social psychology is now treated in a single chapter instead of two, as before. There are two significant changes in chapter order: the material on perception precedes that on learning (although person perception is reserved for the social psychology chapter), and the treatment of conflict and adjustment and of psychotherapy comes much later than in the previous edition.

A recurrent theme in the presentation is the idea that psychological explanations often take one of two modes: developmental or interactive. The developmental mode of explanation emphasizes the historical roots of present behavior; this mode of analysis stems in part from association psychology as brought up to date through modern learning theory, and in part from maturational-growth-genetic theories that also see the child as father to the man. By emphasizing what is going on here and now, the interactive mode contrasts with, but does not contradict, the developmental mode. Much of the study of motivation and conflict is naturally cast in interactive terms. This distinction helps orient the student when a transition is made, for example, from the study of perception, in which the interactive mode is uppermost, to the study of learning, in which a developmental approach is more generally adopted. Hopefully, the developmental-interactive distinction will provide an opportunity for the instructor to bring out the relationships among various topics but without tying these topics together so tightly that he will no longer feel free to rearrange chapters to suit his purposes.

Just as the previous editions benefited from the advice of numerous col-. leagues whose names appeared in the respective prefaces, this edition has been aided by many teachers, too numerous to list here, who communicated their experiences either personally or through a detailed questionnaire circulated to many users of the second edition. I am grateful for their help and interest. Of particular value were the careful readings and comments, either on the second edition or on the revised manuscript, provided by the following: Ernest S. Barratt of Texas Christian University; A. W. Bendig of the University of Pittsburgh; R. N. Berry of Indiana University; John M. Coyne of the Life Sciences Department, General Dynamics/Astronautics; Robert S. Feldman of the University of Massachusetts; Winfred Hill of Northwestern University; Raymond J. McCall of Marquette University; and Herbert F. Wright of the University of Kansas. My gratitude again must be expressed to Claude E. Buxton of Yale University, who as editorial adviser gave his help throughout the revision, even when it interrupted a precious working period while he was on leave in England.

The influence of those who helped in the earlier editions continues, even though I do not repeat their names. As before, I am particularly grateful to my wife, Josephine R. Hilgard, whose case materials have given heightened reality to many parts of the text.

Ernest R. Hilgard
Stanford University Stanford, California March 1962

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