English. Houghton Mifflin

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  •  18-11-2018
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Автор:Houghton Mifflin
Издателство:Houghton Mifflin Company
Страници:826
Корици:Твърди
Година:1990
Броя:1
ISBN:0395485355 Тегло (гр.): Формат: 200 / 240 Състояние: Мн. добро
Houghton Mifflin English / Houghton Mifflin (Английски език)

CONTENTS

Investing in Your Writing / 2

Prewriting / 8

Drafting / 44

Revising / 69

Proofreading / 105

Publishing / 114

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What makes an effective writer? While the answer to this question may not be obvious, most of us recognize effective writing when we see it. We make judgments about what we read every day. For example, we might observe, "That article was very persuasive," "These directions are confusing," "That’s a clever ad," "That story had a terrifying conclusion," or "This chapter is boring." When we read, we expect to gain something—knowledge, new ideas, experiences, or viewpoints; we expect to be entertained, to be moved emotionally, to be taken out of ourselves. If our reading does not profit us, if our expectations are not fulfilled, we may feel that our time has been wasted.

Think about your own writing. What do you think it would take to make it more effective? Special knowledge and instruction? Imagination and creativity? Training and practice? Think about your most recent piece of writing. How could you have made it more effective?

Now read the essay shown on the next two pages. It was written by Katina Layne, a tenth-grade student, for an assignment given in her English class. Do you consider this essay the work of an effective writer?

The Uniform Blahs
I attend a high school which requires that a certain uniform be worn. The outfit consists of a navy blue and white herringbone skirt, a white shirt with a collar, either a navy or white sweater or school sweatshirt, and navy or white socks and shoes. (We're all females here, as you may have guessed.) The point of the uniform, we are told, is to have everyone look the same, thus eliminating competition and the expense of buying popular brands of clothes. That's all well and good, but let's face it, uniforms are boring! After all, who wants to look like a clone of everyone else? Since we have no choice but to wear the uniforms, we students must rely on our resources to relieve us from the "uniform blahs."

One common approach students take to the problem is simply to wear unauthorized articles of clothing and hope that no one notices. Popular illegal" garments include collegiate sweatshirts, turtlenecks, jean jackets, colored sweaters and longjohns (a real favorite in the winter). The challenge, of course, is to escape detection. For example, some students layer their illegal clothing, topping the look off with a uniform sweater. Others spend their time dodging teachers, hiding in groups, slumping in their desks, and skulking—whatever it takes to regain inconspicuous. Surprisingly, this approach occasionally works, mainly because of the dilemma faced by teachers: How do you check five

thousand items of clothing worn into your classroom each day and still have time to teach class?

Unfortunately, there's a price to be paid for ignoring the rules.

For one thing, students may find that their teachers tend to nag and lecture them. Worse yet, the offender runs the risk of having her clothes confiscated. I remember a time in the middle of January when about half of my science class wore longjohns and sweatpants to school coder their skirts. The teacher was so upset that he made us go to the locker room to take them off; then he announced that the items would be cut into the supply of clothing the school donates to charity! Worst of all, breaking the rules can backfire, resulting in an even stricter cress code. For instance, a couple of years ago we were permitted to -ear any plain white or navy sweatshirt, but students started pushing rco far by wearing other colors. The penalty was that for a long time we were restricted to wearing the school sweatshirt. You'd think we'd......
978-0395485354

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о1. Houghton-Mifflin-English

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