English Grammar. A University Handbook

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Автор:Авторски колектив
Издателство:VEB Verlag Enzyklopädie
Страници:406
Корици:Твърди
Година:1984
Броя:1
ISBN: Тегло (гр.): Формат: 175/245 Състояние: Добро
English Grammar. A University Handbook. 

English Grammar is a text-book both for the training of teachers in universities and colleges and for the use of all German learners of the English language. lts main purpose is to provide a guide to the English language as a means of communication. It takes the sentence in all its various forms and functions as the main unit of communication and proceeds from this basis to investigate and explain gram-matical phenomena. Thus units of language below sentence-level, such as phrases and word-classes, are treated as es-sential sentence-compo-nents.

The book combines new in-sights provided by modern linguistics with the well estab-lished results of the English grammatical tradition. It views language both as a system and as a social activity. This com-prehensive approach helps to make the continuous reading of chapters or parts of chapters both interesting and instruc-tive.

A selective glossary explains terms that may be unfamiliar to the reader.

An index provides easy refer-ence to particular points.

Contents

Conventions used in the description...........................................................................................8

1. The English language

1.1. English as a tooi of international communication..........................................................10

1.2. How English has come to be what it is today................................................................11

1.0. Continuity and change 

1.1 .1. The O ld English period 

1.2 .2. The Middle English period 13 

1.3. Early Modern English and af ter 14

1.3. Regional varieties................................................................................................................15

1.4. Functional varieties .......................................................................17

1.5. Grammar and the English language ............................................22

2. Fundamentals

2.1. Aspects of grammatical description..................................................................................24

.0. General 24 .1. Syntactic units 25 .2. Syntactic relations 29 | .3. Syntactic func-tions 31 I .4. Valence 36 I .5. Morphology 38

2.2. Content and form of sentences..........................................................................................40

.0. General40 .1. Communicatienalframe40 .2. Propositional content43 .3. Communication type 47 I .4. Relation type 49 | .5. Correspondences 50

3. Noun phrase

3.1. Aspects of form and content in NP..................................................................................52

.0. General 52 | .1. The content of NP 53 .2. Specification of N in NP 54 | .3. Defi-nitelnondefinite distinction 54

3.2. Syntactic relations and functions of NP ..........................................................................55

.1. Syntactic functions 55 .2. Concord 56 [ .3. Government 57

3.3. The word-class noun ............................'..................................................58

.0. General 58 | .1. Semantic aspects 58 | .2.-.5. Morphological aspects: .2. Num-

ber 60 i .3. Possessive form 63 .4. Animate/inanimate and sex distinction 63 |

.5. Noun formation 64

3.4. Details of noun usage..........................................................................................................65

.1. Proper nouns 65 | .2. Common nouns 67 I .3. Nouns used as Noncount only (verb singular)67 I .4. Nouns used as Noncount only (verb plural) 681.5. Nouns used as both Count and Noncount 68 | .6. Nouns used as Noncount (verb singular or plural) 69

3., 5.-7. Determiners:

3.5. Basic properties and functions ..........................................................................................69

.1. Functions 69 I .2. Explication of semantic and syntactic categories 70 .3. Quantifi-cation 71 I .4. Definiteness/nondefiniteness 72 | .5. Restrictions on occurrence 74 I

.6. Complex determiners 76

3.6. Determiners of the article group ......................................................................................77

.1. Articles 77 ] .2. Demonstratives 84 | .3. Possessives 85 1.4. Distributives/quanti-tatives 85

3.7. Determiners of the pre- and post-article groups........................................................88

.1. Ordinal numbers/distributives 88 .2. Cardinal numbers 89 | .3. Quantifiers 90

.4. such; other; same 91 | .5. Determiners of the pre-article group 92

3.8. Reduction of NP..................................................................................................................92

.0. General 92 .1. Substitution of N 93 .2. Deletion of N 93 | .3. Personal pro-noun94 I .4. Self-pronoun 96

4. Verb phrase

4.1. Syntax and semantics of the verb phrase..........................................................................98

.0. General 98 .1. Propositional content of the VP 98 | .2. Syntactic structure and function of the VP 99 | .3. The communicational frame relevant for VP 100

4.2. The verbal core....................................................................................101

.1. Semantics of the verbal core 101 | .2. Morphology of the verbal core — General 102

4.3. The word-class verb ............................................................................................................103

.0. General 103 | .1. Word-class constituting affixes of the verb 103 .2. Morphological categories and types 105 | .3. Syntagmatic relations of the verb 113 | .4. Syntactic functions of the verb 114 | .5. Categorial meaning 115

4.4. Subclassification of the English verb ................................................................................116

.0. General 116 .1. Main verbs 117 | .2. Special finites 1241.3. Structural verbs 127

A. Modals 129 .5. Description of selected verbs 141

4.5. Morphology of the verb........................................................144

.1. The categories of tense and correlation 144 | .2. The category of aspect 165 | .3. The category of mood 173 | .4. Survey of tense, correlation and aspect combinations 175

5. Adjectival, adverbial and prepositional phrases

5.1. Syntax and semantics of AjP, AvP and PP......................................................................177

.0. General 177 .1. Semantic aspects 178 .2. The word-classes Adj, Adv, Prep

180 I .3. Structure of AjP, AvP, PP 181 | .4. Valence 182 | .5. Gradator and object of preposition 184 | .6. Semantic interpretation of prepositions 185

5.2. Morphology of AjP and AvP ............................................................................................192

.1. Comparative phrases and degrees of comparison 192 .2. Structure in gener al 194 |

.3. Formation and function of the positive 195 .4. Formation and function of the comparative and superlative 197 .5. Syntagmatic relations outside the morphological category of comparison 203 | . 6. Formation of Adj, Adv 204

5.3. Pro-forms of AjP, AvP and PP ........................................................................................205

.0. General 205 | .1. Pro-Adj 206 | .2. Pro-Adv 207

4

6. Communication types of sentence

6.1. Communicational frame and communication type of sentence ..............................209

6.2. Assertion ....................................................................................210

.1. Positive declarative sentences as the basis of comparison 210 .2. Structure of positive declarative sentences 211

Inquiry .............................................................................................211

6.3. .0. General 211 | .1. Wh-questions 213 | .2. Yesjno-questions 216 | .3. Tag ques-

tions 217 I .4. Alternative questions 218

6.4. Request..................................................................................................................................218

.0. General 218 | .1. Standard form of imperative sentences 219 | .2. Imperative sentences with subject expressed 220

6.5. Negation................................................................................................................................221

.0. General 221 | .1. Negative declarative sentences 221 | .2. Negative questions

223 I .3. Negative imperative sentences 223 | .4. ‘need’ and ‘dare’ in negative sentences 224

6.6. Emotionality .......................................................................................................................224

.0. General 224 | .1. Affirmation 225 | .2. Exclamations 226 | .3. Rhetorical questions 227

6.7. Reductions............................................................................................................................228

.0.Gene ral 228 | .1. Reduced declarative sentences 2281.2. Block language 2291.3. Re-duced questions 230 | .4. Reduced imperative sentences 232 | .5. Reduced exclamations 232

S 5 Re-ordering ..........................................................................................................................233

.0. General 233 j .1. Re-ordering of Obj 233 | .2. Re-ordering of Subj/Pve 234 |

.3. Standard position of complements 236 | .4. Re-ordering of Compl 237 | .5. Re-ordering of Comp2l3 239 | .6. Special forms of Comp/Obj re-ordering 241

Passive ................................................................. 243

.1. Semantic and syntactic description 243 | .2. Passive and context 245 | .3. Potential in English and German 249

Complex sentences

* : Principles ..........................................................................................253

.0. General 253 | .1. Semantic means 254 | .2. Syntactic means 257 | .3. Definition 260

7., 2.-4. Syntactic means illustrated:

~Z. Conjoining.............................................................. 261

.1. Principles 261 I .2. Connector 263 | .3. Coordinator 264

Subjoining............................................................... 265

.1. Principles 265 | .2. Subordinator 268 | .3. Relative 270 .4. Interrogative 274

7.4 Reductions ............................................................................................................................277

.1. Principles 277 | .2. Conjoiningreduction 2791.3.-.9. Subjoiningreduction: .3. Finite clause 283 | .4. Non-finite clause 284 | .5. to-phrase 285 .6. ing-phrase 289 | .7. ed-phrase 293 .8. Verbless clause 294 .9. Shifting 297

7J. Recursiveness................. ,,....................................................................................302

" 6. Conjoining and subjoining combined................................................................................303

7., 7.-9. Semantico-syntactic types:

Expansive complex sentences..............................................................................................306

.0. General 306 I .1. Additive 306 | .2. Adversative 310 [ .3. Alternative 312 | .4. De-scriptive 314 .5. Explicative 320

Effective complex sentences................................................................................................325

.1. Causal 325 | .
2. Conditional 328 | .
3. Concessive 332 .
4. Consecutive 335
5 Final 339

Circumstantial complex sentences......................................................................................341

.1. Processual 341 | .2. Instrumental 343 | .3. Comparative 344 | .4. Local 349 [

.5. Temporal 351

1 Sample description

; 1 Introduction............................................................................................................355

? 2. Text extract ............................................................. 355

Survey of units and their relations....................................................................................356

1 - Analysis of (1)......................................................................................................................357

-5 Analysis of (2-5).....................................................................................................362

 6. Analysis of (3)......................................................................................................................366

Seective glossary.................................................................. 371

1-5: :f sources used for quoting ..........................................................................................................386

Corpus 386; Other quotations 387 graphy...................................................................... 390

Извинявайте за многото грешки, програмката не го редактира добре, но е по-добре да имате някакво съдржание, отколкото нищо :)
Английски език.



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